2003 – SARS : SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONA VIRUS
The First cases were reported in November 2002 and led to a worldwide pandemic. WHO promptly formed the international SARS network to identify the causative agent. In March 2003, the SARS CORONA-VIRUS was identified.
Symptoms : The symptoms of SARS are similar to the flu, they include:
- Fever most likely over 100.4 F (38.4 C)
- Mild respiratory symptoms (difficulty in breathing)
- Headache and general discomfort
- Muscle Aches and Pain
- Dry cough
- Might develop Pneumonia
1 in 5 people with SARS may also get diarrhoea, symptoms can change pretty quickly. Most people with SARS will need a machine to help them breathe. SARS can lead to other health problems, including pneumonia, heart failure, and liver failure. People who are over 60 and have ongoing illnesses [comorbidity] like diabetes or hepatitis are most likely to have these problems. People who are in close contact with someone who has SARS are more likely to get it than someone who is just passing by or sharing a room with an infected person
FIRST CONTACT SARS – 2002
The majority of the early cases were limited to the Guangdong province of China, which have a unique dietary tradition favoring freshly slaughtered game meat. Studies were conducted in those markets for evidence of SARS-CoV. Antibodies against SARS-CoV were detected in masked palm civets.
A civet (/ˈsɪvɪt/) is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests. The term civet applies to over a dozen different mammal species. Most of the species diversity is found in southeast Asia.
It was discovered that SARS-like CoV or SL-CoVs were present in different horseshoe bats in the genus Rhinolophus and that they are the likely natural reservoir hosts of bat SL-CoVs.
There are more than 60 different horseshoe species around the world, and one or more of them may serve as the natural reservoir of SARS-CoV and/or its progenitor virus(es). It is therefore likely that another outbreak could occur on a similar scale as that of the SARS-CoV. We hope the response to a future outbreak caused by any bat-borne coronavirus will be much more effective. SARS is an example of the evolution of an animal virus into a human pathogen responsible for one of the most severe global pandemic.
The worldwide panic and chaos that resulted from the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in February 2003 was unprecedented, the first major pandemic of the 21st Century, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS spread via Hong Kong to the rest of the world within a few months affecting 8437 patients with a mortality rate of 9.6%.
With the hard work of Doctors and front line medical personnel, SARS was officially declared ‘eradicated’ by the World Health Organization (WHO) in May 2005, thus becoming the second human disease, after smallpox, to receive this label.
WHO played a key role in the investigation and control of the SARS outbreak from the very beginning. For the first time in history, WHO issued a global travel alert on March 12, 2003, which greatly reduced the rate of long-distance transmission of the disease. On March 17, 2003, WHO established a 9-nation/11-institute SARS network, which played a major role in the rapid identification of the causative agent and development of diagnostic tests. Thanks to the international effort coordinated by WHO, the SARS outbreaks were effectively under control by July 5, 2003.
If you would like to read more on the effects of SARS on front line medical personnel please navigate HERE or go HERE for more information on the genesis of the virus
2019 – CORONA VIRUS ID19
According the CDC, people with COVID-19 have a wide range of symptoms – from mild to severe. The symptoms generally show up anywhere from day 2 to day 14, hence the recommendation of self isolating if you think you have COVID19. The combination of symptoms may be a confirmation the person/s has COVID 19 (Corona Virus ID 19)
- Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing
- Fever Chills
- Repeated shaking with Chills
- Muscle pain
- Head Ache
- Sore Throat
- Loss of Taste or smell
If the person has two of these symptoms, they are more likely to have contracted COVID19. Identification and sequencing of the virus responsible for COVID-19 has shown that it is a novel CoV that shares 88% sequence identity with two bat-derived SARS-like CoV, suggesting it had originated in bats. Additionally, it was shown that this CoV, which was termed 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2, shares 79.5% sequence identity with SARS-CoV. It is possible that some virus can switch host, adapting to the new environment, binding to the ACE2 receptor in humans.
Viral infection from animals to humans is a well known phenomena. The common cold a viral infection was thought to have come from water fowl. The table below lists viral infection and where they originate.
The origin of the COVID 19 virus is not as clear. Some have postulated the theory that it originated from the wet markets in Wuhan where exotic animals and pets are butchered and sold for food. This practice caused the original SARS virus outbreak in 2002. Consequently the closing of the Quandong wet market eliminated the threat of the virus. The original SARS virus was thought to have been eradicated in 2005, but the new SARS-CoV-2, shares 79.5% sequence identity with SARS-CoV a 20.5% difference. Does this mean that the new SARS COV 19 is a variation of the original and therefore the original SARS Virus was not eradicated but evolved to the new virus iteration?
A NEW SARS LIKE VIRUS
In November the 10th 2015 it was reported in the science daily that a new bat SARS-like virus was discovered. This SARS like virus can jump directly from its bat hosts to humans without mutation. However, researchers point out that if the SARS-like virus did jump, it is still unclear whether it could spread from human to human. The researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill made the discovery. The lead Researchers Dr. Ralph S. Baric, Shi Zhengli’s and their team demonstrated that SHC014-CoV the newly discovered SARS like virus found in the Chinese horseshoe bats, can jump from bats to humans.
Since 2002 when the original SARS Cov Virus was first identified, research on the virus has continued, to understand the virus and find a cure or vaccine. The Reported discovery of the a new SARS like virus by the Researchers from the University of North Carolina confirms this. Shortly after the report was published their project funding was pulled by the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) due to the government moratorium on risky virology studies. After the work stopped in the US, it was left to the Chinese to move forward and relocate the project to Wuhan. From Shi Zhengli’s papers, it is clear that they successfully isolated the virus in the lab and were actively experimenting with viral transmission between species.
WHO IS SHI ZHENGLI:– Shi was the lead researcher in the project on bat corona virus. Shi Zhenghli was born in May 1964 in XiXia County, Henan, China. She graduated form Wuhan University in 1987. She received her masters degree from the Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) 1990 and here Ph.D from Montpellier University in France in 2000 in 2014. Experiments involving both SARS and the bat corona virus was coordinated between the Wuhan Institute of Virology and the University of North Carolina USA, with Ralph Baric as the partner investigator. After the project funding was withdrawn in 2014 by the US government, the project was moved to Wuhan.
Why is this story important? It shows there could be an alternative to the accepted story that the virus was released and jumped from bats to human in the wet market in Wuhan. China was warned that a deadly virus could escape its level 4 bio-hazard lab in Wuhan virology R&D centre in 2017. Either the COVID19 virus escaped from the lab, was accidentally released, was deliberately released or it jumped from the bats to human in the wet market of Wuhan, is anyone’s guess. We have no idea, only a thorough investigation will reveal the truth.
HUMAN CORONA VIRUS
We as humans carry corona virus as well, human corona viruses were first identified in the mid-1960s. The seven corona viruses that can infect people are:
- 229E (Alpha Corona Virus)
- NL63 (Alpha Corona Virus)
- OC43 (Beta Corona Virus)
- HKU1 (Beta Corona Virus)
Coronaviruses are the main cause of the common cold – 2–10%, second after rhinoviruses. In adults, the illness is usually limited to common cold symptoms of rhinitis, sore throat and sometimes coughing. In asthmatic patients, and patients with chronic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases, the underlying illness may be worsened.
Corona virus has always been with us, the best we can do to combat new strains of the virus is to have a herd immunity mentality. You have to get it and let the body resolve it and in doing so you become immune to it. The practice of wearing mask to ward of the virus is not only dangerous to your health but is dehumanising. Your body needs all the oxygen it can get to empower the body defences to its fullest extensions. Blocking the airways by wearing a face mask, breathing in more carbon dioxide is detrimental to your health.
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